Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context

Balanovsky et al. 2008

Abstract

Progress in the mapping of population genetic substructure provides a core source of data for the reconstruction of the demographic history of our species and for the discovery of common signals relevant to disease research: These two aspects of enquiry overlap in their empirical data content and are especially informative at continental and subcontinental levels. In the present study of the variation of the Y chromosome pool of ethnic Russians, we show that the patrilineages within the pre-Ivan the Terrible historic borders of Russia have two main distinct sources. One of these antedates the linguistic split between West and East Slavonic-speaking people and is common for the two groups; the other is genetically highlighted by the pre-eminence of haplogroup (hg) N3 and is most parsimoniously explained by extensive assimilation of (or language change in) northeastern indigenous Finno-Ugric tribes. Although hg N3 is common for both East European and Siberian Y chromosomes, other typically Siberian or Mongolian hgs (Q and C) have negligible influence within the studied Russian Y chromosome pool. The distribution of all frequent Y chromosome haplogroups (which account for 95% of the Y chromosomal spectrum in Russians) follows a similar north-south clinal pattern among autosomal markers, apparent from synthetic maps. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots comparing intra ethnic and interethnic variation of Y chromosome in Europe show that although well detectable, intraethnic variation signals do not cross interethnic borders, except between Poles, Ukrainians, and central-southern Russians, thereby revealing their overwhelmingly shared patrilineal ancestry.

Population N M130 M78 M123 M89 M285 P15 M170 M253 P37 M223 M267 M172 M9 M70 M231 P43 TAT M242 SRY1532 M73 M269 M124
Mezen 54 0 0 0 1.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7.4 46.3 0 44.4 0 0 0
Pinega 114 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.9 4.4 0 0.9 0 0 0 0 15.8 23.7 0.9 39.5 0 14 0
Krasnoborsk 91 0 0 0 1.1 0 2.2 3.3 12.1 9.9 0 0 5.5 0 0 0 3.3 36.3 0 19.8 0 6.6 0
Vologda 121 0 0.8 0 0 1.7 0.8 0 11.6 8.3 1.7 0 0.8 0 0 0 3.3 35.5 1.7 33.1 0 0.8 0
Unzha 52 0 5.8 0 1.9 0 0 0 11.5 11.5 3.8 3.8 3.8 0 0 0 0 13.5 0 32.7 1.9 9.6 0
Kashin 73 0 4.1 0 1.4 0 0 0 2.7 8.2 4.1 0 4.1 0 0 0 0 11 1.4 56.2 0 6.8 0
Porhov 57 0 1.8 1.8 0 0 0 1.8 3.5 10.5 0 0 0 3.5 0 1.8 1.8 15.8 0 52.6 0 5.3 0
Ostrov 75 0 4 0 0 0 0 1.3 6.7 9.3 0 1.3 1.3 0 0 0 0 28 0 45.3 0 2.7 0
Roslavl 107 0.9 7.5 0 0.9 0 0 0 1.9 10.3 0 0 2.8 1.9 2.8 0 0.9 13.1 0 45.8 0 11.2 0
Livni 110 0 0.9 0 0 0 0 0 8.2 13.6 0.9 0 0.9 0 2.7 0 0.9 4.5 0.9 62.7 0 3.6 0
Pristen 45 0 2.2 0 0 0 0 0 4.4 17.8 0 0 2.2 0 2.2 0 0 13.3 0 55.6 0 2.2 0
Repievka 96 0 1 0 1 0 2.1 1 3.1 16.7 0 2.1 1 0 0 0 0 6.3 0 59.4 0 5.2 1
Belgorod 143 0.7 0.7 0 0 0 0.7 0 3.5 12.6 0.7 0 4.2 0.7 1.4 0 0.7 11.9 0 59.4 0 2.8 0
Kuban Cossacs     90 0 3.3 0 0 0 1.1 1.1 4.4 16.5 2.2 0 4.4 0 1.1 0 1.1 6.6 1.1 47.3 0 8.8 0