High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males

Sanchez et al. 2005


Y chromosome haplogroup variation We identified a total of 23 Y chromosome haplogroups in 389 males from Somalia, sub-Saharan West Africa, Turkey and Iraq. Figure 1 shows the genealogical relationship of the haplogroups and their frequencies. In Somali males, 14 haplogroups were identified. The frequency of the clade E3b was 81.1%, including 77.6% of the haplogroup E3b1 defined by the M78 mutation. The Eurasian haplogroup K2 was found in 10.4%, and 3.0% of the Somali Y chromosomes belonged to the major clade J. Only 3.0% of the Somalis had the sub-Saharan African haplogroups A3, B and E3a*(xE3a4). Less than 2.0% of the Somalis belonged to the Northwest African E3b2 lineage. In the present study, no individual belonging to E3b* chromosomes carried the V6 mutation, which identifies a subset of chromosomes assigned to E3b* (E-M35*).10 Among the sub-Saharan Western Africans, only four haplogroups were identified. The West African clade E3a was found in 89.2%. Only one individual carried the major clade E3b (1.5%), and the haplogroup E3b1 was not observed. In Turks, 12 haplogroups were found. The four haplogroups J2*(xJ2f2) (27.1%), R1b3*(xR1b3d, R1b3f) (20.3%), E3b3 and R1a1*(xR1a1b) (both 11.9%) were the most frequent ones. In Iraqis, 12 haplogroups were identified. The haplogroup J2*(xJ2f2) was the most frequent one (29.7%) followed by J*(xJ2) (26.6%).